This is the rate of increase in prices over a given period. Inflation is typically a broad measure, such as the overall increase in prices or the such as the increase in the cost of living in a country. Whatever the context, inflation represents how much more expensive the relevant set of goods and/or services has become over a certain period, most commonly a year. In the United States, the Consumer Price Index (CPI) and Producers Price Index (PPI) are used as a metric to gauge how much inflation has risen or fallen over a period.

An IPO refers to the process of offering shares of a private corporation to the public in a new stock issuance for the first time. In essence, an IPO means that a company's ownership is transitioning from private ownership to public ownership. This si why the IPO process is sometimes referred to as "going public." Companies typically issue an IPO to raise capital to pay off debts, fund growth initiatives, improve their public profile, or to allow company insiders to diversify their holdings or create liquidity by selling all or a portion of their private shares as part of the IPO.

When long-term interest rates fall below short-term rates, the yield curve inverts, signaling that investors are shifting funds from short-term bonds to long-term ones. This might mean that the market as a whole is growing more bearish about the near-term economic outlook. An inverted yield curve has historically been regarded as one of the best indicators of an economy going into a recession.

An Individual Retirement Account (IRA) is a tax-advantaged account that allows an individual to save for retirement with tax-free growth or on a tax-deferred basis.

You can open an IRA at banks, Robo-advisors, and brokers. Depending on which type of IRA you choose, your contributions may be tax-deductible or withdrawals may be tax-free. There are several types of IRAs, which include the traditional IRA, Roth IRA, SEP IRA, spousal, IRA, and Simple IRA.